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The Second Invasion of North America above Mexico

- A History and Biography Series

The Historical Nonfiction of Calvin Trowbridge

The first invasion of America occurred ten to forty thousand years ago when people from Asia, and perhaps Europe, entered the Americas.

The year 2021 will be the 500th anniversary of the commencement of the second invasion of North America above Mexico.

In 1521, indigenous Calusa on Florida's southwest coast near Fort Myers defeated the first European attempt to invade and settle in North America above Mexico. They drove a force led by Spanish Ponce de Leon into the Gulf of Mexico.

For the next ninety years, Americans held off repeated European efforts to invade, settle, and hold territory. On June 7, 1610, Europeans had settlements only around Quebec City, St. Augustine, and Santa Fe. Less than 1,000 Europeans lived in North America above Mexico.

But thirty years later, indigenous nations had given up control of much of the Atlantic Ocean seaboard and central New Mexico. 30,000 Europeans lived in North America above Mexico. European-style governments had been created in Canada and the United States.

Modern Canada and the United States had begun. The colonial period in North America had started.

Almost three centuries later, another form of invasion began in North America above Mexico. In 1901, an Italian, Guglielmo Marconi, sent a wireless message, the first message to travel through the air over the Atlantic Ocean, from England to Newfoundland.

By 1913, Marconi's company dominated continental, commercial, wireless, over Canada and the United States.

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Historical Books in Martinsburg, WV

The Author

Calvin Trowbridge's interest in non-fiction began as a youth when his history teacher at Phillips Exeter Academy introduced him to American history. Through his research, he became fascinated with the three decades that saw the beginnings of modern Canada and the United States. His historical non-fiction studies this period intensely. He realizes that he can't understand his ancestors without knowing about the land they were coming to.

Discover this journey for yourself. If you are a student, teacher, a person with indigenous heritage, or just a lover of Canadian and American history, you will be interested in these historical books in Martinsburg, WV.

The Books

The First 90 Years

Indigenous Americans' Successful Defense Against Europeans (1521 - 1610)

Three Bloody, Diseased, Deadly Decades

 A History: The Beginnings of Modern Canada and the United States, The Struggle between Indigenous Americans and Europeans, What Really Happened (1610 - 1640)  


 Father of Wireless, Grandfather of Radio, Great-Grandfather of the Cell Phone, The Story of the Race to Control Long-Distance Wireless (1874 - 1937)